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Anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 PUFA are mediated by new lipid mediators from adipose tissue

Chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the development of diabetes, as well as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and certain brain disorders. Lipids of marine origin help to prevent inflammatory diseases.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) of marine origin alleviate inflammation, while having favorable metabolic effects. Omega-3 reduce the risk of development of cardiovascular disorders that are linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes, and also improve lipid metabolism. A complex research of omega-3-related mechanisms of action in mouse models of obesity at the Institute of Physiology CAS, clinical research on obese patients with type 2 diabetes in the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, and a collaboration with the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry CAS led to the identification of structures of novel signaling molecules of lipid origin - esters of fatty acids and hydroxyl-fatty acids (FAHFA) - derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): 13-DHAHLA, 9-DHAHLA a 14-DHAHDHA. These molecules, which are synthesized by adipose cells and exert anti-inflammatory effects, were detected in the serum and adipose tissue of both obese mice and diabetic patients following dietary intervention with omega-3. These newly discovered molecules, which can be endogenously synthesized when eating an appropriate diet, are involved in the beneficial health effects of omega-3 and have the potential for their wide use in the prevention and treatment of severe diseases.

Kuda O, Brezinova M, Rombaldova M, Slavikova B, Posta M, Beier P, Janovska P, Veleba J, Kopecky J Jr, Kudova E, Pelikanova T, Kopecky J. Docosahexaenoic acid-derived fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) with anti-inflammatory properties. Diabetes. 2016 Jun 16. pii: db160385.