The main objective of this project is to explore structure, mechanisms of action, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of novel lipokines – branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 series (Omega-3) using obesity and inflammation models.
► Ondrej Kuda, Marie Brezinova, Martina Rombaldova, Barbora Slavikova, Martin Posta, Petr Beier, Petra Janovska, Jiri Veleba, Jan Kopecky, Jr., Eva Kudova, Terezie Pelikanova and Jan Kopecky✉ Docosahexaenoic acid-derived fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) with anti-inflammatory properties. Diabetes 2016 Sep; 65 (9): 2580-2590. https://doi.org/10.2337/db16-0385
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) of marine origin alleviate inflammation, while having favorable metabolic effects. Omega-3 reduce the risk of development of cardiovascular disorders that are linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes, and also improve lipid metabolism. A complex research of omega-3-related mechanisms of action in mouse models of obesity at the Institute of Physiology CAS, clinical research on obese patients with type 2 diabetes in the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, and a collaboration with the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry CAS led to the identification of structures of novel signaling molecules of lipid origin - esters of fatty acids and hydroxyl-fatty acids (FAHFA) - derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): 13-DHAHLA, 9-DHAHLA a 14-DHAHDHA. These molecules, which are synthesized by adipose cells and exert anti-inflammatory effects, were detected in the serum and adipose tissue of both obese mice and diabetic patients following dietary intervention with omega-3. These newly discovered molecules, which can be endogenously synthesized when eating an appropriate diet, are involved in the beneficial health effects of omega-3 and have the potential for their wide use in the prevention and treatment of severe diseases.
Chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the development of diabetes, as well as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and certain brain disorders. Lipids of marine origin help to prevent inflammatory diseases.